terça-feira, 21 de junho de 2011

Túneis de vento / Wind Tunnels

Wind Tunnels

by:  Satoru Okamoto (Ed)

Wind Tunnels  library.nu #433197

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language:  en  [ english ]
submitted by:  anonymous


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Although great advances in computational methods have been made in recent years, wind tunnel tests remain essential for obtaining the full range of data required to guide detailed design decisions for various practical engineering problems. This book collects original and innovative research studies on recent applications in wind tunnel tests, exhibiting various investigation directions and providing a bird’s eye view on this broad subject area. It is composed of seven chapters that have been grouped in two major parts. The first part of the book (chapters 1–4) deals with wind tunnel technologies and devices. The second part (chapters 5–7) deals with the latest applications of wind tunnel testing. The text is addressed not only to researchers but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers, and students seeking to gain better understanding of the current status of wind tunnels. Through its seven chapters, the reader will have an access to a wide range of works related to wind tunnel testing.

High-frequency oscillator design for integrated transceivers

High-frequency oscillator design for integrated transceivers

by:  Johan van der Tang, Dieter Kasperkovitz, Arthur H. M. van Roermund

High-frequency oscillator design for integrated transceivers  library.nu #433450

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language:  en  [ english ]
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1402075642
9781402075643
0306487160


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year:  2003
pages:  344
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series:  International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
volume:  748
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High-Frequency Oscillator Design for Integrated Transceivers covers the analysis and design of all high-frequency oscillators required to realize integrated transceivers for wireless and wired applications. This includes the design of oscillator types as single-phase LC oscillators, I/Q LC oscillators, multi-phase LC oscillators, and ring oscillators in various IC technologies such as bipolar, BiCMOS, CMOS, and SOI (silicon on insulator). Starting from an in depth review of basic oscillator theory, the authors discuss key oscillator specifications, numerous oscillator circuit topologies, and introduce the concepts of design figures of merit (FOMs) and benchmark FOMs, which assist the oscillator designer during the overall design cycle. Taking advantage of behavioral modeling, the elementary properties of LC oscillators and ring oscillators are analyzed first. A detailed analysis of oscillator properties at circuit level follows taking parasitic elements and other practical aspects of integrated oscillator design into account. Special attention is given to advantages and limitations of linear time invariant (LTI) phase noise modeling, leading to the concept of optimum coupling in I/Q LC oscillators and a simulation method for fast and efficient phase noise optimization in oscillators. In addition, all modern linear time variant (LTV) phase noise theories are covered. As not only phase noise is of high importance to the designer, but optimization of other oscillator properties as well, additional subjects such as various tuning methods of LC oscillators are analyzed, too. Design examples of integrated LC and ring oscillators in the frequency range of 100 MHz up to 11 GHz are thoroughly discussed throughout the book.The clear and structured discussion of basic oscillator properties make High-Frequency Oscillator Design for Integrated Transceivers an excellent starting point for the inexperienced oscillator designer. The detailed analysis of many oscillator types and circuit topologies, the discussion of numerous practical design issues together with fast optimization methods, and more than 200 carefully selected literature references on oscillator literature, LC oscillator and ring oscillator designs make this book a very valuable resource for the experienced IC designer as well.
Contents
Preface
Glossary
Abbreviations
1 – Introduction
     1.1 History
     1.2 Application examples
     1.3 Literature on oscillators
     1.4 The oscillator designer
     1.5 Scope
2 – Oscillators
     2.1 The ideal oscillator
     2.2 The non-ideal oscillator
     2.3 Classification
     2.4 Oscillation conditions
          2.4.1 Feedback modeling
          2.4.2 Negative resistance modeling
     2.5 Amplitude stabilization and settling time
          2.5.1 Self-limiting
          2.5.2 Automatic gain control
     2.6 Summary
3 – Structured design with FOMs
     3.1 Analog circuit design
          3.1.1 Functional specifications and design resources
          3.1.2 Design phases
          3.1.3 Design heuristics
     3.2 Structured and automated design methods
          3.2.1 Trial-and-error
          3.2.2 Optimization tools
          3.2.3 Expert systems and synthesis environments
     3.3 FOM-based structured design
          3.3.1 Structured design requirements
          3.3.2 Figures of merit
     3.4 Modeling framework
          3.4.1 System level modeling
          3.4.2 Behavioral level modeling
          3.4.3 Circuit level modeling
     3.5 Summary
4 – Specifications
     4.1 Nominal specifications versus design specifications
     4.2 Frequency and tuning range
          4.2.1 Tuning constant and linearity
     4.3 Phase noise to carrier ratio
          4.3.1 Reciprocal mixing
          4.3.2 Signal to noise degradation of FM signals
          4.3.3 Spurious emission
     4.4 Jitter
     4.5 Waveform
     4.6 Carrier amplitude and power
     4.7 Phase and amplitude matching
     4.8 Power dissipation and supply voltage
     4.9 Supply pushing
     4.10 Voltage, temperature and process variation
          4.10.1 Supply voltage variation
          4.10.2 Temperature range
          4.10.3 Process spread
     4.11 Technology and chip area
     4.12 Summary
5 – Elementary properties
     5.1 Frequency and phase
          5.1.1 LC oscillators
          5.1.2 Ring oscillators
     5.2 Tuning
          5.2.1 LC oscillators
          5.2.2 Ring oscillators
     5.3 Waveform
          5.3.1 LC oscillators
          5.3.2 Ring oscillators
     5.4 Carrier amplitude and power
     5.5 Summary
6 – Practical properties
     6.1 Frequency and phase
          6.1.1 Single-phase LC oscillators
          6.1.2 Multi-phase LC oscillators
          6.1.3 The two-integrator oscillator
          6.1.4 N-stage ring oscillators
     6.2 Tuning
          6.2.1 LC oscillators
          6.2.2 Ring oscillators
     6.3 L(f[sub(m)]): linear time-invariant modeling
          6.3.1 LC oscillators
          6.3.2 Ring oscillators
     6.4 L(f[sub(m)]): linear time-variant and nonlinear modeling
          6.4.1 Qualitative analysis
          6.4.2 Quantitative analysis
     6.5 Waveform
     6.6 Carrier amplitude and power
     6.7 Power dissipation and supply voltage
     6.8 Summary
7 – Figures of merit
     7.1 Design FOMs
          7.1.1 Frequency design FOMs
          7.1.2 Tuning design FOMs
          7.1.3 L(f[sub(m)]) design FOMs
     7.2 Benchmark FOMs
          7.2.1 Oscillator number
          7.2.2 Normalized phase noise
          7.2.3 Oscillator design efficiency
     7.3 Summary
8 – AC phase noise simulation tool
     8.1 AC phase noise simulation
          8.1.1 Introduction
          8.1.2 ACPN simulation principle
     8.2 ACPN simulation flow
     8.3 Simulation example I: verification of L[sub(bipo)](f[sub(m)])
     8.4 Simulation example II: L(f[sub(m)]) of a SOA LC oscillator
     8.5 Summary
9 – Design examples
     9.1 A 670–830 MHz LC oscillator for FM radio in SOA
          9.1.1 Specifications
          9.1.2 SOA technology
          9.1.3 Oscillator design
          9.1.4 Experimental results
          9.1.5 Benchmarking
          9.1.6 Conclusion
     9.2 A 0.9–2.2 GHz two-integrator VCO for Sat-TV
          9.2.1 Specifications
          9.2.2 Oscillator design
          9.2.3 Experimental results
          9.2.4 Conclusion
     9.3 A 225–310 MHz LC oscillator with PMOS varactors
          9.3.1 Specifications
          9.3.2 Resonator design
          9.3.3 Active oscillator design
          9.3.4 Experimental results
          9.3.5 Discussion
          9.3.6 Conclusion
     9.4 A 10 GHz I/Q ring VCO for optical receivers
          9.4.1 Specifications
          9.4.2 Two-stage ring oscillator topologies
          9.4.3 Simulation of the maximum oscillation frequency
          9.4.4 Adding buffered outputs
          9.4.5 Experimental results
          9.4.6 Benchmarking
          9.4.7 Conclusion
A – Resonator quality factor
B – Behavioral modeling building blocks
C – The ideal limiter and implementations
     C.1 DC transfer characteristics of a MOS differential pair
     C.2 DC transfer characteristics of a bipolar differential pair
     C.3 Graphical example
D – I/Q signal generation implementations
E – The frequency of a ring oscillator
F – Bipolar and MOS AC calculation model
     F.1 Generic transistor model
     F.2 Bipolar and MOS parameter values
G – Overview of LC oscillator designs
H – Overview of ring oscillator designs
I – Q and L(f[sub(m)]) of linear LC oscillators
     I.1 Single-phase LC oscillators
     I.2 Multi-phase LC oscillators
J – Q and L(f[sub(m)]) of linear ring oscillators
     J.1 The two-integrator oscillator
     J.2 N-stage ring oscillators
References
Literature on LC oscillator designs
Literature on ring oscillator designs
About the Authors
Index
Symbols


Common terms and phrases:
C(fm oscillation frequency oscillator design phase noise quality factor ring oscillator transconductance transistor tuning range two-integrator oscillator varactor

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